Annotations on this site attempt to incorporate awareness of, and acknowledge debts to, the large body of existing annotations of Ulysses and Joyce's other fictions. Frequent reference is made, often only by last names of the authors, to these previous efforts:

        Weldon Thornton, Allusions in Ulysses, 2nd ed. (U North Carolina P, 1968)
                The first free-standing published collection of annotations
        Don Gifford with Robert J. Seidman, Ulysses Annotated, 2nd ed. (U California P, 1988)
                 A fuller free-standing collection, still the standard work in the field
        James Joyce, Ulysses: Annotated Students' Edition, notes by Declan Kiberd (Penguin, 1992)
                 An edition of the novel with notes at the back
        James Joyce, Ulysses: The 1922 Text, notes by Jeri Johnson (Oxford UP, 1993)
                An edition of the novel with notes at the back
        Roland McHugh, Annotations to Finnegans Wake, 3rd ed. (Johns Hopkins UP, 2006)
                A page-by-page glossing of the implications of words
        James Joyce, Ulysses, notes by Sam Slote (Alma Classics, 2012)
                An edition of the novel with notes at the back

Reference works, critical studies of Joyce's writings, biographies, and other useful scholarly books are referenced with slightly abbreviated versions of standard academic citation. Some come up so frequently that they are often cited only by name, title, or name and title:

        P. W. Joyce, English As We Speak It in Ireland (Longmans, Green and M. H. Gill, 1910)
        Frank Budgen, James Joyce and the Making of Ulysses (Harrison Smith & Robert Haas, 1934)
        Stuart Gilbert, James Joyce's Ulysses (Vintage, 1955)
        Robert Martin Adams, Surface and Symbol (Oxford UP, 1967)
        The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) (Oxford UP, 1971)
        Louis Hyman, The Jews of Ireland (Irish UP, 1972)
        Clive Hart and David Hayman, James Joyce's Ulysses: Critical Essays (U California P, 1974)
        Zack Bowen, Musical Allusions in the Works of James Joyce (SUNY Press, 1974)
        John Henry Raleigh, The Chronicle of Leopold and Molly Bloom (U California P, 1977)
        Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, ed. Ivor H. Evans (Harper & Row, 1981)
        Richard Ellmann, James Joyce, 2nd ed. (Oxford UP, 1982)
        Hugh Kenner, Ulysses, 2nd ed. (Johns Hopkins UP, 1987)
        A. Nicholas Fargnoli and Michael P. Gillespie, James Joyce A-Z (Oxford UP, 1995)
        Terence Patrick Dolan, A Dictionary of Hiberno-English, 2nd ed. (Gill & Macmillan, 2004)
        Douglas Bennett, The Encyclopaedia of Dublin, 2nd ed. (Gill & Macmillan, 2005)
        Robert Nicholson, The Ulysses Guide: Tours through Joyce's Dublin, 2nd ed. (New Island, 2015)
        Vivien Igoe, The Real People of Joyce's Ulysses (UC Dublin P, 2016)

Frequent references are also made to notes by various contributors on the website James Joyce Online Notes (

Scholarly articles are cited by author, title, journal name, volume, date, and page numbers, with the name of the James Joyce Quarterly often shortened to JJQ. Websites are cited by URL address, occasionally with an active link, and by an author and date if they are supplied. Unpublished dissertations, theses, and papers are cited simply by author, title, and year of completion.

When not otherwise identified, quotations from Homer, Dante, Shakespeare, the Bible, and Joyce's other works are taken from the following published texts:

        James Joyce, Collected Poems (Viking, 1957)
        The Critical Writings of James Joyce, ed. Ellsworth Mason and Richard Ellmann (Viking, 1959)
        James Joyce, Dubliners, ed. Terence Brown (Penguin, 1992)
        James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, ed. Seamus Deane (Penguin, 1992)
        The Riverside Shakespeare, ed. G. Blakemore Evans et al, 2nd ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 1997)
        James Joyce, Finnegans Wake, ed. John Bishop (Penguin, 1999)
        Dante Alighieri, Inferno, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2000)
        Dante Alighieri, Purgatorio, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2003)
        Dante Alighieri, Paradiso, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2007)
        The English Bible: King James Version, The Old Testament, ed. Herbert Marks (Norton, 2012)
        The English Bible: King James Version, The New Testament and the Apocrypha, ed. Gerald
                Hammond and Austin Busch (Norton, 2012)
        Homer, The Odyssey, trans. Emily Wilson (Norton, 2018)

Some images on the site have been scanned from books, selectively, in accordance with fair-use principles. Books that have supplied multiple images include:

        John F. Finerty, Ireland in Pictures (1898)
                Photographs taken by Finerty
        Flora H. Mitchell, Vanishing Dublin (Allen & Figgis, 1966)
                Watercolors painted by Mitchell
        Cyril Pearl, Dublin in Bloomtime (Viking, 1969)
                Photographs from the National Library of Ireland
William York Tindall, The Joyce Country (Schocken, 1972)
                Photographs taken by Tindall
        James Joyce's Ulysses: A Facsimile of the Manuscript, 3 vols. (Octagon, 1975)
                Photographic facsimiles of the pages of the Rosenbach Foundation manuscript
        Clive Hart and Leo Knuth, A Topographical Guide to Ulysses, 2nd ed. (Wake Newslitter P, 1976)
                Maps and drawings by Knuth
        Frank Delaney and Jorge Lewinski, James Joyce's Odyssey (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981)
                Photographs by Lewinski and from various archives   
        Jack McCarthy with Danis Rose, Joyce's Dublin: A Walking Guide, 2nd ed. (St. Martin's, 1988)
                Maps by Bob Conrad and photographs from the National Library of Ireland
        David Pierce, James Joyce's Ireland (Yale UP, 1992)
                Photographs by Dan Harper and from various archives
        Richard Hamilton, Imaging James Joyce's Ulysses (The British Council, 1999)
                Drawings, prints, and digital images by Hamilton
        Ian Gunn and Clive Hart, James Joyce's Dublin (Thames & Hudson, 2004)
                Maps by Gunn and Stephen Patterson

The great majority of the photographic images that accompany the notes are taken from the Web, and a majority of those come from Wikimedia Commons. Every effort is made to identify and cite the creator of the work, its location if displayed in a museum, church, or other public space, and the address of a relatively authoritative website if the image appears on many. The website of the National Archives of Ireland ( has provided many useful photographs. Others were taken in recent years by John Hunt and by Gareth Collins (see Contributors).

Video and audio clips come mainly from YouTube. When performers and dates or locations of performance can be identified, they are cited in the captions.