The annotations on this site build upon previous efforts and attempt to acknowledge intellectual debts. Ulysses Annotated: Notes for James Joyce’s Ulysses, by Don Gifford with Robert J. Seidman, 2nd ed. (U California P, 1988), is the standard work of annotations and is cited repeatedly in the notes simply as Gifford, or sometimes as Gifford and Seidman (Seidman researched the musical allusions, and the rhetorical figures in Aeolus) with the kind permission of Robert Seidman and Don Gifford's heirs. Weldon Thornton's earlier Allusions in Ulysses: An Annotated List, 2nd ed. (U North Carolina P, 1968) is cited simply as Thornton. Jeri Johnson's annotations in the Oxford edition of Ulysses (1993) are cited as Johnson, and Sam Slote's in the Alma Classics edition (2012) as Slote. Frequent references are made to the website James Joyce Online Notes, sometimes simply as JJON.

Of the many biographies of Joyce and his close relatives and acquaintances, the standard remains James Joyce by Richard Ellmann, 2nd ed. (Oxford UP, 1982), frequently cited here simply as Ellmann. Other biographies are cited with more complete bibliographical information.

Critical studies of Joyce’s works, and other scholarly studies, are named in the notes with a slightly abbreviated version of standard academic citation. Certain books come up so frequently that they are often cited in much briefer form. These include:
        Stuart Gilbert, James Joyce's Ulysses (Vintage, 1955)
        Robert Martin Adams, Surface and Symbol (Oxford UP, 1967)
        Louis Hyman, The Jews of Ireland (Irish UP, 1972)
        Zack Bowen, Musical Allusions in the Works of James Joyce (SUNY Press, 1974)
        John Henry Raleigh, The Chronicle of Leopold and Molly Bloom (U California P, 1977)
        Hugh Kenner, Ulysses, revised ed. (Johns Hopkins UP, 1987)
        Terence Patrick Dolan, ed., A Dictionary of Hiberno-English (Gill & Macmillan, 1998)
        Vivien Igoe, The Real People of Joyce's Ulysses (UCD Press, 2016)
Unpublished dissertations, theses, and papers are cited simply by year. All journal names are spelled out, with the exception of the James Joyce Quarterly, sometimes referred to simply as JJQ. Websites are cited by URL address, occasionally with an active link.

All quotations of the Bible refer to the King James translation. With the exception of a few small emendations, all quotations of works by Shakespeare follow the texts of The Riverside Shakespeare, ed. G. Blakemore Evans et al, 2nd ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 1997). Quotations of Homer’s Odyssey come from various English translations, cited independently in the notes. Quotations of Dante come from the translations of Robert and Jean Hollander. Quotations of Joyce’s other fictions refer to page numbers in commonly available Penguin paperback editions: Dubliners as edited by Terence Brown, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man as edited by Seamus Deane, and Finnegans Wake as edited by John Bishop.

Most of the photographic images that accompany the notes have been widely disseminated on the Web and are assumed to be in the public domain. Every effort is made to identify and cite the creator of the work, its location if displayed in a museum, church, or other public space, and the address of a relatively authoritative website if the image appears on many. Requests to remove images that infringe artistic copyright will be promptly honored (see Corrections). Some sites have supplied many images, among them the National Archives of Ireland ( Other photographs were taken by Gareth Collins (see Contributors), and are used with his permission.

Still other images on the site have been scanned from books, selectively, in accordance with fair-use principles. Many books have supplied multiple images:
John F. Finerty, Ireland in Pictures (1898)
                Photographs taken by the author
        Flora H. Mitchell, Vanishing Dublin (Allen & Figgis, 1966)
                Watercolors painted by the author
        Cyril Pearl, Dublin in Bloomtime (Viking, 1969)
                Photographs from the National Library of Ireland
William York Tindall, The Joyce Country (Schocken, 1972)
                Photographs taken by the author
        Frank Delaney and Jorge Lewinski, James Joyce's Odyssey (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981)
                Photographs by Lewinski and from various archives    
        David Pierce, James Joyce's Ireland (Yale UP, 1992)
                Photographs by Dan Harper and from various archives
        Ian Gunn and Clive Hart, James Joyce's Dublin (Thames & Hudson, 2004)
                Maps by Gunn and Stephen Patterson

Video clips come mainly from YouTube. When performers and dates or locations of performance can be identified, they are cited in the captions. Maps come from Google Maps and from cited books.