The annotations on this site build upon previous efforts and attempt to acknowledge intellectual debts. Frequent reference is made, often by last names only, to these published collections of notes:

        Weldon Thornton, Allusions in Ulysses, 2nd ed. (U North Carolina P, 1968)
                The first free-standing collection of annotations
        Don Gifford with Robert J. Seidman, Ulysses Annotated, 2nd ed. (U California P, 1988)
                 A fuller free-standing collection, and the widely acknowledged standard in the field
        James Joyce, Ulysses: The 1922 Text, ed. Jeri Johnson (Oxford UP, 1993)
                A paperback edition of the novel with notes at the back
        A. Nicholas Fargnoli and Michael P. Gillespie, James Joyce A-Z (Oxford UP, 1995)
                An encyclopedia of Joycean works, people, events, places, characters, and concepts
        James Joyce, Ulysses, ed. Sam Slote (Alma Classics, 2012)
                A hardcover edition of the novel with notes at the back

Frequent references are also made to notes by various contributors on the website James Joyce Online Notes (

Biographies, critical studies of Joyce's works, and other useful scholarly books are referenced with slightly abbreviated versions of standard academic citation. Certain books come up so frequently that they are often cited only by last name, or by last name and title. These include:

        P. W. Joyce, English As We Speak It in Ireland (Longmans, Green and M. H. Gill, 1910)
        Stuart Gilbert, James Joyce's Ulysses (Vintage, 1955)
        Robert Martin Adams, Surface and Symbol (Oxford UP, 1967)
        Louis Hyman, The Jews of Ireland (Irish UP, 1972)
        Clive Hart and David Hayman, James Joyce's Ulysses: Critical Essays (U California P, 1974)
        Zack Bowen, Musical Allusions in the Works of James Joyce (SUNY Press, 1974)
        John Henry Raleigh, The Chronicle of Leopold and Molly Bloom (U California P, 1977)
        Richard Ellmann, James Joyce, 2nd ed. (Oxford UP, 1982)
        Richard Wall, An Anglo-Irish Dialect Glossary for Joyce's Works (Syracuse UP, 1986)
        Hugh Kenner, Ulysses, revised ed. (Johns Hopkins UP, 1987)
        Terence Patrick Dolan, A Dictionary of Hiberno-English (Gill and Macmillan, 1998)
        Vivien Igoe, The Real People of Joyce's Ulysses (UCD Press, 2016)

Scholarly articles are cited by author, title, journal name, volume, date, and page numbers, with the name of the James Joyce Quarterly regularly shortened to JJQ. Websites are cited by URL address, occasionally with an active link. Unpublished dissertations, theses, and papers are cited simply by author, title, and year of completion.

When not otherwise identified, quotations from Homer, Dante, Shakespeare, the Bible, and other works by Joyce are taken from the following published texts:

        The Critical Writings of James Joyce, ed. Ellsworth Mason and Richard Ellmann (Viking, 1959)
        Homer, The Odyssey, trans. Robert Fitzgerald (Doubleday, 1961)
        James Joyce, Dubliners, ed. Terence Brown (Penguin, 1992)
        James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, ed. Seamus Deane (Penguin, 1992)
        The Riverside Shakespeare, ed. G. Blakemore Evans et al, 2nd ed. (Houghton Mifflin, 1997)
        James Joyce, Finnegans Wake, ed. John Bishop (Penguin, 1999)
        Dante Alighieri, Inferno, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2000)
        Dante Alighieri, Purgatorio, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2003)
        Dante Alighieri, Paradiso, trans. Robert and Jean Hollander (Doubleday, 2007)
        The English Bible: King James Version, The Old Testament, ed. Herbert Marks (Norton, 2012)
        The English Bible: King James Version, The New Testament and the Apocrypha, ed. Gerald
                Hammond and Austin Busch (Norton, 2012)

Some images on the site have been scanned from books, selectively, in accordance with fair-use principles. Books that have supplied multiple images include:

        John F. Finerty, Ireland in Pictures (1898)
                Photographs taken by the author
        Flora H. Mitchell, Vanishing Dublin (Allen & Figgis, 1966)
                Watercolors painted by the author
        Cyril Pearl, Dublin in Bloomtime (Viking, 1969)
                Photographs from the National Library of Ireland
William York Tindall, The Joyce Country (Schocken, 1972)
                Photographs taken by the author
        James Joyce's Ulysses: A Facsimile of the Manuscript, 3 vols. (Octagon, 1975)
                Photographic facsimiles of the pages of the Rosenbach Foundation manuscript
        Clive Hart and Leo Knuth, A Topographical Guide to Ulysses, 2nd ed. (Wake Newslitter P, 1976)
                Maps and drawings by Leo Knuth
        Frank Delaney and Jorge Lewinski, James Joyce's Odyssey (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981)
                Photographs by Jorge Lewinski and from various archives   
        Jack McCarthy with Danis Rose, Joyce's Dublin: A Walking Guide, 2nd ed. (St. Martin's, 1988)
                Maps by Bob Conrad and photographs from the National Library of Ireland
        David Pierce, James Joyce's Ireland (Yale UP, 1992)
                Photographs by Dan Harper and from various archives
        Ian Gunn and Clive Hart, James Joyce's Dublin (Thames & Hudson, 2004)
                Maps by Ian Gunn and Stephen Patterson

The great majority of the photographic images that accompany the notes are taken from the Web, and a majority of those come from Wikimedia Commons. Every effort is made to identify and cite the creator of the work, its location if displayed in a museum, church, or other public space, and the address of a relatively authoritative website if the image appears on many.  The website of the National Archives of Ireland ( has provided many useful photographs. Others were taken in recent years by Gareth Collins (see Contributors).

Video clips come mainly from YouTube. When performers and dates or locations of performance can be identified, they are cited in the captions.