In Brief

Just as Joyce modeled Mulligan on his friend Gogarty, he modeled "Haines" on Gogarty’s other guest in the tower, a well-off young Hiberno-English scholar named Richard Samuel Chenevix Trench who was born in 1881, one year before Joyce. Gogarty met Trench during a term at Oxford in early 1904, a fact which accounts for Mulligan's referring to "the oxy chap downstairs" in Telemachus and for Stephen's thinking in Scylla and Charybdis that Mulligan has acquired the "Manner of Oxenford." In 1909, following an unhappy love affair, Trench killed himself with a handgun—perhaps the same one that terrorized Joyce in the middle of the night.

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Haine is French for “hate.” Haines’ Englishness provides one possible basis for hearing his name as an indictment, but late in Telemachus Stephen sees that as Haines looks at him his gaze is "not all unkind," and in Nestor he thinks again that Haines' eyes were "unhating." So if we are to hear Haines' name as an indication that he is a hater, it appears to have more to do with the revelation, a few moments after Stephen's realization that Haines does not hate him, that the Englishman is antisemitic. In Scylla and Charybdis, Joyce will show that Mulligan too is antisemitic, though perhaps he has only flippantly picked up the affectation from Haines.

The friendship of Gogarty and Trench represented a kind of cross-Irish Sea chiasmus. Though settled in England, Trench’s family was Anglo-Irish, and Gogarty’s Catholic family moved in Dublin’s Anglo-Irish elite. Gogarty met Trench through the Oxford Gaelic Society, where both of them were learning Irish. After Gogarty returned to complete his degree at Trinity College Dublin, Trench reciprocated by visiting Ireland in September 1904. Into this insular harmony, Joyce interjected the continental dissonance of naming him Haines. In Circe, Mulligan celebrates a Black Mass assisted by "The Reverend Mr Hugh C Haines Love M. A." Haines here has become conflated with the Reverend Hugh C. Love, an entirely different (but similarly Protestant, upper-crusty, well-meaning, and insensitive) personage in the novel. The juxtaposition of their two names produces the meaning Hate Love.

Trench was an enthusiast proponent of the Gaelic League cause of reviving Irish language and native Irish culture. Although English friends called him Samuel, he asked to be called Dermot (Diarmuid) in Ireland, and in 1905 he legally added Dermot to his string of names. Under this name he wrote a short work called What is the Use of Reviving Irish?, published in 1907 by a Dublin printer. A copy of the pamphlet, seen in the image accompanying this note, is held in the Joyce Museum housed in the Martello tower at Sandycove. Trench’s third cousin once removed, an Irishman named C. E. F. (Chalmers) Trench, wrote an article titled “Dermot Chenevix Trench and Haines of Ulysses,” published in JJQ 13 (1975): 39-48, which makes clear how deeply passionate was Trench’s commitment to the cause of resuscitating the Irish language.

Another Trench, Richard Chenevix (1807-86), whose relation to Richard Samuel Chenevix I do not know, was a poet and philologist who became the Archbishop of Dublin in 1864. His four published works on linguistic topics—On the Study of Words (1851), On the Lessons in Proverbs (1853), English Past and Present (1855), and A Select Glossary (1860)—were evidently important to Joyce when he was writing Oxen of the Sun. In "Richard Chenevix Trench and Joyce's Historical Study of Words," Joyce Studies Annual 9 (1998), Gregory Downing argues that the elder Trench gave Joyce his notion that language develops organically. Sarah Davison cites Downing's work in "Joyce's Incorporation of Literary Sources in Oxen of the Sun," Genetic Joyce Studies 9 (2009), asserting "with confidence" that The Study of Words influenced the composition of Oxen. 

John Hunt 2011

Poster for La Haine, French black-and-white film by Mathieu Kassovitz (1995).

Copy of Dermot Trench's What is the Use of Reviving Irish? (1907), held in the James Joyce Museum, Sandymount. Source: John Hunt.