“As he and others see me”: Seeing himself in the mirror held up by Mulligan, Stephen recalls two well-known lines written by the Scottish poet Robert Burns (1759-96). Burns wrote, "O wad some Power the giftie gie us /
To see oursels as ithers see us!" The thoughts that follow in Telemachus ("Who chose this face for me? This dogsbody to rid of vermin") make clear that he knows the whole poem and is thinking about its message: objective representation threatens subjective self-satisfaction, and the body humbles the mind. Bloom knows the poem too; he recalls Stephen's line in Lestrygonians and Nausicaa. In the former chapter, he associates it with a similar line from act 3 scene 4 of Hamlet, in which the prince forces his mother to look at portraits of her first husband and of Claudius: "Look on this picture then on that."
Read MoreBurns' lines come from a poem titled On a Louse: On seeing one on a lady’s bonnet at church, and they cannot be properly appreciated without contemplating the scene that is vividly set out in the poem's opening stanzas:
Such a sight was all too common in turn-of-the-century Dublin. Stephen will think later in this episode of his mother picking lice off of her children and squishing them between her fingernails. The image recalls a similar event in A Portrait, and also another moment in that book in which Stephen snatches a louse from his neck and rolls it between his fingers. On the latter occasion, the thought of being louse-infested makes him doubt the value of his exquisite intelligence.
Ha! Whare ye gaun, ye crowlin ferlie?
Your impudence protects you sairly,
I canna say but ye strut rarely
Owre gauze and lace,
Tho' faith! I fear ye dine but sparely
On sic a place.
Ye ugly, creepin, blastit wonner,
Detested, shunn'd by saunt an' sinner,
How daur ye set your fit upon her—
Sae fine a lady!
Gae somewhere else and seek your dinner
On some poor body.
Burns pursues similar thoughts about how the body's infirmities can humble the mind's pretensions. The image of an ugly, creeping, blasted louse crawling over a respectable and presumably self-pleased lady leads him to his moral at the end of the poem:
O wad some Power the giftie gie usPeople are liberated, Burns asserts, by their ability to see themselves objectively—i.e., as objects, from the outside—because the reality of our existence never quite lives up to our flattering self-conceptions. Shortly after Stephen thinks of Burns while looking at himself in the mirror, Mulligan alludes to an Oscar Wilde saying about mirrors that has similar implications of unflattering self-knowledge.
To see oursels as ithers see us!
It wad frae monie a blunder free us,
An' foolish notion:
What airs in dress an' gait wad lea'e us,
An' ev'n devotion!
Bloom recalls Burns’ famous line verbatim. In Lestrygonians, he watches men “wolfing gobfuls of sloppy food” and thinks, “Am I like that? See ourselves as others see us. Hungry man is an angry man.” Shortly later he thinks, "Look on this picture then on that," recalling the moment in which Hamlet forces Gertrude to confront the ugliness of her new husband. In Nausicaa he sees an unknown “nobleman” taking a walk on the beach after supper and considers following him to observe what he is like: “Walk after him now make him awkward like those newsboys me today. Still you learn something. See ourselves as others see us. So long as women don’t mock what matter?”