In Brief

Perhaps ignorantly, or more likely in a spirit of sarcastic mockery, the Citizen mispronounces one of the English names he reads from the pages of the Irish Independent: "Cockburn, at the Moat house, Chepstow." People in England pronounce this name "Coburn" (and sometimes spell it so), but the Citizen clearly pronounces it as it is spelled in the newspaper, because Joe Hynes jumps in with a remark about gonorrhea: "— I know that fellow, says Joe, from bitter experience."

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The Citizen's mispronuncation may be one more instance of him speaking confidently about things he does not understand: his capacity for ignorant blather should never be underestimated. But he may be deploying the ridiculous English name deliberately. Later in the chapter he puns on another sexually transmitted disease when Bloom tries to point out that the island next door has a highly achieved civilization: "— Their syphilisation, you mean, says the citizen. To hell with them! The curse of a goodfornothing God light sideways on the bloody thicklugged sons of whores' gets! No music and no art and no literature worthy of the name. Any civilisation they have they stole from us." He is still riding the same horse a little later when J. J. O'Molloy refers to King Edward VII as "the peacemaker:" "— Tell that to a fool, says the citizen. There's a bloody sight more pox than pax about that boyo." This comment sets his companions to joking about Albert Edward's omnivorous sexual exploits.

Something about English names seems calculated to mock the prudish reserve with which some English people regard their bodies. In Penelope Molly thinks of "those awful names with bottom in them Mrs Ramsbottom or some other kind of a bottom." There are also English people named Reamsbottom, Shufflebottom, Longbottom, Bottomore, Bottomles, Bottoman, and Bottomers. The English countryside is dotted with similarly suggestive place names: Velvet Bottom, Scratchy Bottom, Slap Bottom, Galloping Bottom, Flash Bottom, Burnt Bottom, Broadbottom, Slackbottom, Hole Bottom, Happy Bottom, Paradise Bottom, Whambottom Lane, and the like.

Cocks appear in many British family names like Handcock, Glasscock, Cockshott, Wilcocks, Stonecock, and Bullcock, as well as places like Cockermouth, Cockshot, Cockshoot Close, Cockshot Wood, the Cockup Lake District, Cockplay, and Cocking. Add in the many variations on Balls, Butts, Tit, Titty, Piddle, Furry, Bush, Clit, Prick, Lick, Fanny, Dicks, and Nut, and—even after allowing for the fact that many of these words have acquired new meanings over the course of centuries—the entire English countryside seems to be staging a maniacal return of the repressed. Monty Python could not make it up better.

But the notion of using "cock burn" to mock the hated English would probably never occur to the Citizen if he did not live in a city housing the largest red-light district north of Morocco. Joe Hynes evidently spends some of his earnings in the Monto, as did Joyce and many respectable middle-class men of his day—enough of them to make STDs a feature of casual conversation. This is perhaps not a form of Irish cultural superiority to which the Citizen should be calling attention.

JH 2020